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ISSN 2309-5911

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An ECTN Association Publication since 2000 - November 2013, Vol. 14, N. 05 - Special Edition Russia

Russia (Россия) or Federation of Russia (Российская Федерация) is the largest country in the world. The estimated population (2013) is about143.3 millions of inhabitants; its capital is Moscow. Want's to know more about Russia ? Read:

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  • Arkhangelsk
  • Kazan
  • Lipetsk
  • Moscow
  • Omsk
  • Saint Petersburg
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Foreword (Tatyana ShekhovtsovaLomonosov Moscow State University)  

1.  Current Situation in Teaching Chemistry at Russian Universities (Tatyana Shekhovtsova, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department)

2.  Training of Professional Analysts with Bachelor’s Degree in Russian Universities: an Unresolved Problem (Vyacheslav Vershinin, Omsk State University, Chemistry Department)

3.  How to Ensure the Continuity of Training of Highly Qualified Analytical Chemists: Teaching System (Leonid Moskvin and Oleg Rodinkov, St-Petersburg State University, Chemical Department)

4.  Integration of Technical University and Industrial Enterprise as an Approach to Enhance the Quality of Training Analytical Chemists (Tatyana Ermolaeva, Lipetsk State Technical University)

5.  Advanced Forms of Training Specialists in the Field of Chemical Analysis and Environmental Monitoring (Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk)

6.  Real Sample Testing in the Analytical Chemistry Course (Gennady Evtugyn and Evelina Medyantseva, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University

7.  On the problem of training and retraining specialists in instrumental methods (А.Т. Lebedev, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Moscow, Russia)

8.  Chemical Education for Sustainable Development at D.Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Natalia Tarasova, D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow, Russia) 

Websites of interest

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Dear EC2E2N NewsLetter Readers,

It is my honor and pleasure to be invited as one of the guest editors for the issue of EC2E2N NewsLetters dedicated to the current situation in Russian chemical education. I am sure that it was a good idea of the Editorial board to choose such a theme for one of the special editions because the mentioned problem is mostly unfamiliar to the European chemists, and it is worthwhile to become aware of it.

I would like to introduce to the readers the up-to-date state and problems to be solved in higher chemical education in Russia. I shall discuss those issues taking as an example teaching analytical chemistry at Russian classical and technical universities. The reasons for such choice of the field of chemistry are the following: the scientific and teaching community of analytical chemists is one of the most powerful and active in Russian chemistry; the Scientific Council on Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences (SCAC of RAS) includes a special commission on training specialists in analytical chemistry (AC); being the head of this commission, I know the whole situation quite well. The commission organizes conferences dedicated to the educational problems; the last symposium was held at the end of September, 2013. Besides, the situation in teaching AC reflects completely the situation in all other branches of chemistry in Russia. I shall pay attention to some aspects of the total situation, and my colleagues will tell about various novel approaches to teaching AC.

Tatyana Shekhovtsova, Guest Editor
Universiity Lomonosov, Moscow RU 


Current Situation in Teaching Chemistry at Russian Universities

by Tatyana Shekhovtsova, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Moscow, Russia - Contact:

After the long confrontation of Russian Ministry of Sciences and Higher Education and the teaching community, which was against the reforms planned as the result of the introduction of our country in Bolonia Process, in 2011 all Russian universities were obliged to accept a multi-level system of higher professional education giving bachelor’s (4 years) – master’s (2 years plus) – doctor’s (4 years plus) courses. At present practically all the universities in Russia have to train bachelors; 90% of the universities offer master’s degree in chemistry, and approximately 50% of all classical universities and several technical universities are keeping the possibility to train “specialists” in fundamental and applied chemistry (which takes 5 years), along with bachelors training. And only Lomonosov Moscow State University was allowed to keep the one-level system of “specialists” training, but during 6 years.

This novel system needs novel approaches, programs and optimized plans to train students of different levels. Future bachelors have to study the basic course of AC during 250-400 hours (depending on the university), specialists – during 300–450 hours. The main trends in AC teaching consist in the decrease of classical chemical methods share (to about 25-30%) and increase of instrumental methods share. The main accent in instrumental methods teaching is made on spectroscopic methods of analysis; unfortunately, high price of chromatographic instrumentation narrows the possibilities of many universities in teaching these rapidly developing methods at a proper level. A great attention is paid in all universities to metrological aspects of AC and analysis of real samples.

Future specialists and even bachelors have to carry out their yearly course research, obtaining an experience in scientific investigations.

It is worth mentioning that all the universities provide the specialization in AC for “specialists” (during 300–600 hours, depending on the university, in 7th-10th semesters), and so called “profiles” in AC for bachelors: 300–750 hours in 7th-8th semesters. And the fact that the duration of profiles is approximately the same or even longer than the duration of special courses for “specialists” provides rather good training of bachelors in AC, which gives them a chance to find a job in analytical laboratories.   

Russian universities have a right to independently select 70% of the educational programs for their master’s courses, both compulsory and elective. Every division can form its own set of academic disciplines, the order of their studying, the number of teaching hours, and the ways to control students’ knowledge. Of course, modern trends in chemistry, experience of other universities, including European universities, qualification of the teachers, possibilities of using modern instrumentation, and the analytical methods that have been traditionally developing in each division are taken into consideration. The above mentioned commission on training specialists in analytical chemistry of SCAC of RAS works out the recommendations on the optimization of all the programs and plans in order to give students a chance to move from one university to another, and a possibility for teachers to exchange their experience with each other.

Recently (in 2009-2011), several textbooks of a very high level for training specialists, were written by the teams of contributors from Moscow, St.-Petersburg, and Omsk State Universities. Besides, Russian students use the American and European textbooks on AC authored by H. Christian, M. Otto, and the one edited by R. Kelner; all of them were translated into Russian. But now it is necessary to write new textbooks on AC for bachelors, and text-books on various methods of AC for masters’ courses.

It is important to mention the high level of teachers in Russian Universities: they are assistant, associate and full professors, practically all of them have scientific degrees and 10-50% of them have the highest scientific degree of the Doctor of Science.

The management and teachers of Russian universities have yet a lot of unsolved problems and hidden pitfalls connected with the organization of the new educational system; they are ready to study and learn more from their European colleagues, to collaborate with them and exchange experience. 

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Training of Professional Analysts with Bachelor’s Degree in Russian Universities: an Unresolved Problem

by Vyacheslav Vershinin, Omsk State University, Chemistry Department, Omsk, Russia -

The well-composed one-level educational system of training professional analytical chemists was inherited by post-Soviet Russia from the USSR. The students of chemical departments studied for 5 years. All these students had a large course of analytical chemistry (AC) in 3rd and 4th semesters. About 25-% of them were majoring in AC during 7th-9th semesters (about 500 hours of lectures and labs). During the last (10th) semester they did their graduate research at AC divisions to get their diplomas. In such a way, Russian universities trained an adequate number of analytical chemists for scientific institutions, industrial and other analytical laboratories. The graduates had the level of professional training approximately equal to master’s degree in AC from European or American university. A hasty implementation of two-level educational system (4 years for bachelor's degree and then 2 years for the master's) by the Russian government in 2011 destroyed this system. Thereby, the system of training specialists for the analytical service was also destroyed.

Now the educational programs for Masters and especially Bachelors of Science are regulated by hard and fast federal standards. The issuers of these standards suggested that the Bachelors of Science in chemistry would work in scientific institutions but not in industry or real economy, regardless of the labor market needs as well as student's wishes. It is necessary to point out that the majority of people who enter the B.S. programs have an insufficient initial level of knowledge in chemistry and a weak motivation. Bachelors get only small professional training in AC (if the student takes corresponding elective courses) and they have no research experience at all, as graduate research is not required for the B.S. degree. For this reason many bachelors are not ready to work either in analytical laboratories equipped with complicated instrumentation or in science. It is quite difficult for them to obtain the job according to their wishes, - and on the contrary, industrial and research laboratories cannot find qualified specialists they need.

In this connection Russian universities are now trying to reinforce the professional training of Bachelors of Science by changing the content of the basic AC course. We try to strengthen the applied component of this course, keeping its fundamental character and taking into account the experience of European universities, for example Euro-curriculum II program. Many Russian universities introduced vast cycles of «profile elective disciplines» (in 5th-8th semesters) devoted to modern analytical methods, as the replacement for former specialization in AC. Now the Ministry of Education wants to improve the bachelors training standards and supply them with a so-called “applied bachelor” system aimed at training of laboratory assistants. The number of people entering master’s programs in AC is increasing though slowly: till now only 10 % of the graduating bachelors enter the corresponding master’s programs. We suppose that well-trained masters have to become the main professionals in Russian analytical laboratories, while numerous bachelors will have to work under their guidance.

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How to Ensure the Continuity of Training of Highly Qualified Analytical Chemists: Teaching System

by Leonid Moskvin and Oleg Rodinkov, St-Petersburg State University, Chemical Department, St-Petersburg, Russia -

The transition to a multi-level system of higher professional education in Russia has become a reality, being backed by the new Law on Education that has been in effect from September 1st, 2011.  At present, the overwhelming majority of the 80 Universities in Russia that provide education in Chemistry, offer Bachelor's degrees in chemistry.  So far, most Universities have succeeded in getting the right to confer the two degrees, Bachelor’s and Master’s, but it is just a matter of time, when their number will be scaled down in favor of the Universities allowed only bachelors training.

Negative consequences of the higher education reforms are first of all related to a lack of adequate legislature that could guarantee jobs for the University graduates, holders of a Bachelor’s degree. Staffing Agencies and Personnel Services of enterprises and organizations of all levels have to rely upon their own interpretation of this qualification degree as a somewhat intermediate one between that of a college graduate and an engineer. However, there are some positive consequences, too:

  1. The graduate students are more mobile now (although predominantly within the Federation) and have an opportunity to correct their choice of specialization when going from one educational level to another, as well as have an opportunity to be educated at a higher professional level.
  2. Prerequisites have been created for an upgrade of intellectual level of the applicants for a higher qualification as post-graduates, owing to an inflow of gifted bachelors from peripheral Universities seeking a Master’s degree from top-ranked Universities of the Russian Federation.

Some specific problems of training Bachelors of Science in chemistry have been revealed when the attempts failed to synchronize bachelors training programs at peripheral and leading Universities in terms of competitiveness of these two types of bachelor’s degree holders, as they apply for a master’s degree. In order to synchronize the programs of training bachelors at Universities of a different level of education, an adequate form of cooperation of these Universities should be found. The corresponding attempts are underway.

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Integration of Technical University and Industrial Enterprise as an Approach to Enhance the Quality of Training Analytical Chemists

by Tatyana Ermolaeva, Lipetsk State Technical University, Lipetsk, Russia-

At Lipetsk State Technical University analytical chemists are trained for analytical services of industrial enterprises. The main emphasis is laid upon the integration of education, science and manufacturing. The efficiency of feedback between the University and the employer significantly influences the quality of training analytical chemists.

There exists a long-term strategic partnership in training professionally-educated specialists between the industrial metallurgical enterprise and the Technical University, which makes it possible for the employer to take part in the developing the educational programs and the training exclusive experts having knowledge of the concrete enterprise, while for the University it is a chance to have testing site where it is possible to estimate students’ skills in the course of training. The specialists of analytical laboratories of a metallurgical enterprise participate in defining the topics of graduate and term research performed on modern expensive analytical instrumentation owned by the enterprise. The research is aimed at the development or modernization of analytical protocols of the analysis of metallurgical products, raw materials or environmental samples. Such University ̶ industry interaction results in that each real student’s theme becomes a complex multipurpose research, and the enterprise enrolls high qualified specialists of the necessary profile.  Considerable attention is paid to the scientific component of training, revealing itself in the expansion of its interdisciplinary and fundamental character.

The analysis of the long-term cooperation between the metallurgical enterprise and the Lipetsk State Technical University has revealed the following obvious benefits in realizing the educational projects: increase of graduates’ employment level; reduction of adaptation period for young specialists at work; growth of teaching staff’s qualification; modernization of material and technical facilities and use of modern analytical equipment in the educational process, the purchase of which was formerly complicated because of insufficient funding and maintenance problems;  new opportunities in training highly qualified specialists in context of their further post-graduate education.

Equally beneficial is the integration cooperation with the University for the enterprise: it can use academic staff for consultations and research; the cooperation makes it possible to increase the qualification of the employees of the enterprise; the enterprise enrolls experts of high qualification and of the required profile of training; new experience is gained due to joint work in joint symposiums. Arising integration processes of higher school and the industrial enterprise promote the formation of conditions for merging the educational process and scientific research, and the implementation of scientific achievements in production.

The long-term positive experience of the integration cooperation of the Technical University is now used for establishing ties with other enterprises of the region which enroll the specialists in analytical chemistry, in particular, the modern enterprises located in the Lipetsk Federal special economic production zone, laboratories of sanitary and veterinary services, enterprises of food and pharmaceutical industries.

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Advanced Forms of Training Specialists in the Field of Chemical Analysis and Environmental Monitoring

by Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russia - Contact:

An undoubted priority of improving the forms of the so called advanced training of specialists in chemical analysis and environmental monitoring is the introduction of innovative academic principles to the educational process, which is obtaining new knowledge through the research. The organization and carrying out in 2012 and 2013 of the expeditions "Arctic Floating University ", where the leading scientists, professionals and students worked in close cooperation was aimed at solving these problems.

The expedition program represented an integrated scientific and educational complex. The consolidation of theoretical and practical training with field research formed the necessary conditions for the students to get a comprehensive understanding of the Arctic region and the vital tasks related to its development.

The educational part of the expedition included a set of lectures and seminars, practical and laboratory work, field study and intermediate sessions on key issues of the environmental monitoring in the Arctic territories and the hydrochemistry study of the Arctic seas. The total program was 108 hours.

In the expeditions organized by the Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk Center of the Russian Geographical Society and the Northern Branch of RosHydroMet 54 members participated. The undergraduate and doctoral students formed at least 59% of positions in the expedition, the remaining 41% were the researchers representing 11 leading research and educational institutions of Russia such as: Moscow State University, the Institute of Ecological Problems of the North of Russian Academy of Sciences, the Arctic and Antarctic Research institute, State Oceanographic Institute.

During the expeditions and under the guidance of scientists the undergraduate and postgraduate students performed comprehensive oceanographic, hydro-chemical, physico-chemical, meteorological, seismological, radiological, biological, and other research in the Arctic sea waters, as well as on the continental and island territories.

Over the period 2012-2013, the expedition‘s participants covered more than 30314 km on the Barents, White, Kara, and Greenland seas. They explored the natural environment of 11 Arctic islands: Hooker Island, Northbrook, Hayes and Champa of the archipelago of Franz Josef Land; as well as the islands: North, Orange, Gulf Stream, Rich, Barents of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago; the islands: Kolguev and Vaygach. They did the measurements at 447 hydrological stations covering 32 secular and standard oceanographic sections, and analyzed 26,406 samples.

The innovative project "Arctic Floating University" already aroused great interest worldwide. Undoubtedly, the expansion of the project participants’ geography will help address the issues of sustainable development of the Arctic region, which falls within the scope of geopolitical and geo-economical positioning of Russia in the northern latitudes.

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Real Sample Testing in the Analytical Chemistry Course

by Gennady Evtugyn and Evelina MedyantsevaKazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia-

Understanding demands on bachelor’ degree programs, Russian universities pay special attention to the practices related to applied areas of science. Kazan Federal University has started bachelor’ degree program in chemistry since 2010. Since that time, a traditional training in analytical chemistry for the second year students was amended with an additional unit devoted to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a real sample. The course of analytical chemistry in our University is generally planned within two terms and involves main subdisciplines, i.e. qualitative analysis, gravimetry, extraction and separation, and thin-layer chromatography for the autumn term and instrumental analysis (chromatography, electroanalysis, atomic spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry) for the spring term. Just between these parts of the course, the students are invited to suggest their own sample for the analysis. Water samples, minerals and alloys are mostly preferred although some exotic materials, e.g. old coins or foil on polymeric parts of mobile phones were also considered.

The real sample analysis starts from a short overview of the methods used for the analysis of similar materials performed in extracurricular hours under supervision of a professor in charge. The extended plan of the real sample analysis together with the literary part of the work are considered and approved on the student’s seminar. After that, students are requested to perform sample treatment and analyze a liquid extract obtained by dissolution of alloys in strong acids or water evaporation. The skills related to weighting, volume measuring, mass and concentration calculation were obtained during the first term of analytical chemistry studying. Regarding water analysis, inorganic macro ions are determined by indicator reactions. Main components of alloys are detected in a similar manner. In total, the sample treatment and determination of main components by ‘wet chemistry’ takes about 12 hours of laboratory practice.

Second part of the work covers the rest of the second term. While considering instrumental analysis, the students can determine minor components of the alloys or residual elements of minerals from the extracts stored from the beginning of the term. Usually, alkali-earth metals and iron are quantified by flame spectroscopy, fluorides, nitrates and chlorides by potentiometry, copper or nickel by voltammetry; and iron and sulfates by spectrophotometry. Ionic chromatography is used for the results validation. The choice of appropriate method of instrumental analysis, as well as the components to be determined, depends on the sample and preliminary information about its composition obtained on the preliminary stages of planning. Final report is defended as a part of the exam on analytical chemistry in the summer examinations. Apart making familiar with the methods of common sample analysis, the work under real sample promotes interest of the students in analytical chemistry and self-satisfaction with the efforts attained.

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On the problem of training and retraining specialists in instrumental methods

by А.Т. Lebedev, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Moscow, Russia - Contact:

The beginning of the XXI century may be characterized by considerable expanding of the possibilities of instrumental analytical methods. Identification and quantification of the most various analytes became more reliable, sensitive, and selective. These issues resulted in the sharp increase of the assortment of the commercially available analytical instruments. During last 10 years modern instruments were purchased by many Russian scientific and industrial organization as well as various controlling bodies (Health Ministry, Rospotrebnadzor). Well equipped laboratories and centers appeared in Moscow and some other cities. Being a specialist in mass spectrometry I am more familiar with the situation in this particular field. It is known that only the Centers for collective use all over Russia have purchased more than 1000 mass spectrometers of all possible types.  Considering that other laboratories possess about the same number of instruments, the overall number of active professional mass spectrometrists in Russia should theoretically exceed 5000. However Russian Society for Mass Spectrometry (RSMS) created in 2003 and uniting mass spectrometrists working in 50 regions of Russian Federation has only 500 members.  Therefore, the problem is rather obvious. It involves a certain deficit of professionals. There is a paradoxical situation when purchasing of a new powerful instrument does not improve the research quality as there are no researchers who could use it in a proper way. Modern mass spectrometers are the most complex analytical instruments consisting of ion sources designed for various ionization techniques, complex vacuum systems, high precision ion optical systems, gas and liquid chromatographs, data processing and managing electronic systems and many other items. Taking into account that instrumental service in Russia is quite poor, a Russian mass spectrometrist should be a qualified operator knowing the nuances of the instrument functioning, a researcher able to interpret the obtained results, and an engineer, able to understand the problem with the instrument and carry out small repairing needs.   

Since the power and the beauty of mass spectrometry become obvious during the first contact with the method, attraction of the talented young researchers to work in mass spectrometry is not a problem. Real problem involves the fact that mass spectrometry is not taught at the required level in any university of Russian Federation. Experience is reached directly on site after the purchasing of a new instrument by an organization. Short courses on selected aspects of mass spectrometry are taught in few institutions including Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Sankt-Petersburg Polytechnic University, analytical chemistry department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University.  In my opinion education in the field of physico-chemical methods of analyses should be multidisciplinary and not shorter than a year. It is impossible to be a modern chemist being not able to interpret NMR, ESR, mass spectrometry, electrochemistry, and other data. Ideally a new specialization - physico-chemical methods of analysis - is required. 

A very important issue engages retraining of specialists. Annual 2-3 days seminars on mass spectrometry organized by the RSMS attract 50-70 participants being possibly the only source of retraining of specialists in the country. The lectures are given by highly experienced professional mass spectrometrists from various research and educational organizations. Unfortunately RSMS does not have own instruments. Therefore the retraining is limited by theoretical aspects, although the majority of participants from the Russian provinces are interested first of all in practical issues. There are no educational centers in the country equipped with the modern instruments where it would be possible to carry on practical classes based on the real analytical tasks. Even the instrumental park of the Lomonosov Moscow State University cannot satisfy the requirements of modern science. Thus the lectors at the RSMS educational seminars have to rely in their lectures usually on their experience acquired in well-equipped foreign laboratories.

To increase the efficiency of exploitation of new equipment and to prevent the further lag in the priority fields of science it is of primary importance to modify the educational programs of the high school in the country, introducing full size theoretical and practical courses on instrumental methods of analysis for the professional education and retraining of specialists. 

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Chemical Education for Sustainable Development at D.Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia 

by Natalia Tarasova and Dmitry Mustafin, Institute of Chemistry and Sustainable Development,   Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow, Russia – Contacts:,

The history of Chemical Education for Sustainable Development in Russia and the “greening” of the higher technical education in the Soviet Union began in 1983 at D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology, with the initiative of its rector, the future Minister of Education of Soviet Union G.A. Yagodin, who founded the Department of the Industrial Ecology. In order to bring the knowledge of sustainability into the world of professional chemical engineers, the University became the first school in Russia to organize Department for the Problems of Sustainable Development in 1995. In 2000 the first in Russia and one of the first in the world Institute of Chemistry and Problems of Sustainable Development was established. Today this unique educational institution includes:

  • The UNESCO Chair in Green Chemistry for Sustainable Development
  • The Higher Chemistry College of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • The Higher College for Rational Use of Natural Resources
  • The Department of Sociology
  • The Department of Risk Assessment and Risk Management

In order to train the diverse and numerous educational communities in Russia, educators at the Institute developed courses on natural protection and sustainable development to be taught by educators in hundreds of schools across nineteen regions of the Russian Federation. In 2013 on the basis of the Institute UNESCO organized UNESCO Chair in Green Chemistry for Sustainable Development.

The Institute of Chemistry and the Problems of Sustainable Development of Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia is dealing with burning chemical, economical, social, ecological problems of sustainable development, working on reorientation this generation's lifestyles, putting special focus on the importance of the humanistic and ethical components of the whole framework of chemical education for sustainable development. We are working in accordance with the International documents and National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Russian Federation that proclaims "...the greening of human conscience and ethical principles and radical reorientation of the whole system of education and training toward sustainable development principles must prioritize intellectual and moral values over material values."  (“National Sustainable Development Strategy for the Russian Federation”, Moscow, 1997.)  The Russian Ecological, Social, Economic Doctrines also stress the need to develop new educational standards that promote basic principles of national sustainable development. 

Since 1995, two compulsory courses on sustainable development, "The Problems of Sustainable Development" and "Industrial Security and Risks" have been included into the curricula of all departments and institutes of Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology. Several new courses such as “History of Chemistry for Sustainable Development”, “Global Ecological Problems” were started in the University. During more than 15 years all students of the University have to master the computer simulation game "Stratagema". The game is based on the theory and practical methods of applied systems approach and management introduced by Dennis Meadows. The game requires close interaction of several participants united in a working group that helps participants master the fundamentals of system thinking and apply them concretely to the solution of each given problem. The outcome of the game depends on coordinated decision-making that integrates the needs and perspectives of every participant.

During last 10 years Institute of Chemistry and the Problems of Sustainable Development  organizes Moscow seminar “Sustainable Development and Education” with lectures of the most prominent scientists, members of Russian Academy of Sciences, directors of “Gazprom”, ministers of the Moscow Government, professors of different Russian Universities. Teachers of schools and colleges, scientists and professors from Moscow Universities and Research Institutions, journalists take part at such seminars. Articles about such seminars are published regularly in the mass media.

Since the year 2000, several summer schools have been organized at Mendeleyev University to update young university faculty on innovative pedagogical methodologies. The attendees were presented with programs in such subjects as sustainability, democracy and justice, the goals of sustainability, the reorientation of existing education towards sustainable development, the best pedagogical practices and experiences at the international and national level, social responsibility of scientists.

Mendeleyev University organizes scientific-practical student expeditions that seek to provide students with practical knowledge of education for sustainable development. These expeditions have been very successful, and the results of several were included into the National Report "Lead Pollution of the Environment and its Influence on Public Health". In recent years, some of them have also been sent out to the regional committees of the Russian State Committee on Nature Protection. 

In addition to its activities at the higher education level, Mendeleyev University set up a long-term patronage program to promote education in chemistry for sustainable development in secondary education by creating centers of environmental monitoring at secondary schools and colleges in various parts of the country. The creation of the Centers turned out to be one of the most effective tools for the integration of sustainable development issues into the formal and nonformal chemistry educational process in secondary education. These Centers provide college students (15-18 years old) with the opportunity to carry out systematic, scientific research by working on various projects. The experience of the first Centers for School Environmental Monitoring and the information gathered by the University was very useful for further expanding this program. For the last several years such Centers were organized in several Moscow schools.

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Websites of interest

Those who are interested in the more detailed information on the Education in Russian Universities can visit the following websites: