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ISSN 2309-5911

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An ECTN Association Publication since 2000 - January 2014, Vol. 15, N. 01 - Special Edition Green Chemisrty

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flag_af-za_southafrica.gif Prof. Liliana Mammino, Guest Editor

Department of Chemistry, University of Venda
P/bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950,
South Africa 

T: (27)-150-9628147
M: 0726745540
F: (27)-150-9624749


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Fields ot Interest: Activities related to computational chemistry research • Computational study of biologically active molecules • Mathematical models in chemistry • Chemical education for the tertiary level (first year general chemistry; basic, advanced and postgraduate physical chemistry). Main focus on conceptual understanding • Education for sustainable development • Systematic collection of information on students’ difficulties in approaching chemistry, in view of the preparation of teaching material • Language of science (both epistemological and pedagogical aspects) • Relationships between humanities and sciences • History of chemistry.

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Summary

Foreword (Main Guest Editor: Liliana Mammino) 

Green Chemistry: 30 Years of History
(Co-Guest: Fabio Aricó)
Green Chemistry in Latin America
(Co-Guest for LA: Vaniâ G. Zuin) 

  • LA1 GC in Argentina (Green Chemistry in Argentina past and future)
  • LA2 GC in Brazil (The latest green chemistry initiatives in Brazil promoted by the Brazilian Chemical Society; The Brazilian Green Chemistry School; )
  • LA3 GC in Mexico
  • LA4 GC in Peru (Sowing the seeds of green chemistry in Peru)
  • LA6 GC in Uruguay (Biocatalysis and Biotransformations Group; Bioanalytical Chemistry-Bio MS Group; Oils and Fats Group; Clean Hydrogen production group; Heterogeneous catalysis group; Chemical Ecology Group)

Green Chemistry in the Russian Federation
(Co-Guest for Russia: Ekaterina Lokteva)
Some examples of the activity of the Scientific-Educational Center “Sustainable-Green Chemistry” of Lomonosov Moscow State University

Green Chemistry Conferences

Foreword


Dear EC2E2N NewsLetter Readers,

Green chemistry is the chemists’ response to the challenges of sustainable development and to the awareness of the impacts that human activities have on the environment, and of the implications of these impacts on our own (humans’) wellbeing. The scope of green chemistry is deeply embedded in the scope of chemistry as the science of substances. The principles of green chemistry focus on substances, on the characteristics that are relevant for our health and safety (non-hazardous, non-toxic), on the way in which they are produced and on their utilisation life-span. Thus, green chemistry aims at protecting our health and the environment by selecting the types of substances preferably to be produced, the best (safer and more environmentally compatible) ways of producing them, and the best ways of utilising them.

The history of green chemistry is recent. Those of us who are not-very-young have witnessed it. As Fabio Aricó recalls in this issue, its birth was prompted by the awareness of the damages of environmental pollution. Green chemistry aims at preventing such damages at the source, by selecting less hazardous substances, designing less hazardous ways of producing them, and promoting responsible and informed use by all of us.

The diffusion of green chemistry research, and also of the basic information about what it is, has followed different patterns in different contexts. A number of articles and books are devoted to “Green chemistry in...”, considering different countries or entire continents. One of the first (if not the very first) was Green Chemistry in Africa (2002, on an IUPAC project). It may be interesting to consider why this happens for green chemistry and not, e.g., for other areas of chemistry that have also emerged in recent decades, such as computational chemistry or nanosciences. The reason may be found in the nature of green chemistry. By focusing on substances, their production and their usages, it relates to contextual realities. Therefore, some features of its diffusion and development are different for different contexts, although the principles and the chemical background constitute a common basis for all contexts. It is then interesting to see how it spreads and evolves in different contexts.

Another characterising feature of green chemistry is the way in which it can interface with all the other branches of chemistry. The definition itself (“the invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances”, reported in Fabio Aricó’ contribution) does not make it into a separate branch of chemistry. It is more an approach and, simultaneously, an objective that can be integrated into all the branches of chemistry. Traditionally, green chemistry has known its biggest growth within organic chemistry, and this is understandable, because the large majority of substances produced by the industry and entering our everyday life are organic. However, other interfaces are also quite interesting and can further grow constructively. The interfaces with environmental chemistry are obvious, as environmental chemistry verifies the impact of specific substances on the environment – a type of information which enables green chemistry to evaluate which substances are sufficiently environmentally compatible and which others need to be replaced by more benign ones. Interfaces with other areas are also quite promising. The interface with theoretical/computational chemistry appears particularly promising because of the roles that it plays in the design of new substances and the prediction of their properties. Green chemistry proposes to replace less benign substances with more benign ones. The design of new benign substances can be facilitated by theoretical/computational chemistry. It will converge with Paul Anastas’ recommendation in his plenary lecture at the opening of the 4th international IUPAC Conference on Green Chemistry (Foz do Iguaçu, August 2012) that the design of environmentally benign substances needs to follow the patterns (levels of prediction accuracy and testing extent) currently used in the design of new drugs.

The 5th international IUPAC Conference on Green Chemistry (www.saci.co.za/greenchem2014/) will be held in Durban (South Africa), 17–21 August 2014.  After the recent summer holidays (which in South Africa comprise the second part of December and the first part of January), the organization and preparation activities are proceeding with new energy. The conference aims at emphasizing all the relevant aspects of green chemistry. The technical aspects (green synthesis, green solvents, energy saving and storage, etc.) are given ample space. Simultaneous emphasis will be given to the interfaces with the other areas of chemistry; to the ways in which green chemistry links to the contextual realities of different regions and countries; to green chemistry education, both within chemistry education in general and for the preparation of informed citizens; and to the ways in which green chemistry poses in front of crucial issues of our world, from climate change to security and safety.

It is the first time that this important IUPAC conference comes to Africa. Attending it is a unique opportunity not only for scientific and professional interchanges, but also for being acquainted with a reality where green chemistry can potentially have huge impacts on industrial development and make it sustainable in more profound ways than in other contexts, because industry that is emerging in current times can better benefit from the already accumulated green chemistry knowledge.

There will be updates in the next ECTN issues. But it is already time to invite all the readers to start thinking of abstracts to propose, and to start thinking of participating in an event that will combine a high-quality exciting scientific experience with all the warmth of African hospitality and the attractions of African beauties. 

 

flag_af-za_southafrica.gif Prof. Liliana Mammino, Guest Editor
University of Venda, South-Africa 


Green Chemistry: 30 Years of History

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flag_eu-it_italia.gif Prof. Fabio Aricò (University Ca'Foscari of Venice, Italy)

University of Venice Personal Page 

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Green Chemistry, considered as one of the primary methods of pollution prevention, is a relative recent phenomenon. The reason why this straightforward approach is only now taking hold is due to a combination of factors, including economic, regulatory, scientific, and even social factors.

The 1990s was the decade during which Green Chemistry was introduced on a wide industrial scale, however, environmental statutes and regulations have already proliferated since the early 1960s.

In 1962 Silent Spring, a book written by Rachael Carson, helped launching the contemporary American environmental movement. The book focused on the uncontrolled used of pesticide resulting in harming and killing animals and eventually also humans. Its title was meant to recall a spring season in which no bird songs could be heard, because they had all died as a result of pesticide abuse.

As a results, in America new regulations restricted the use of chemicals and increased testing of chemical substances to determine their hazard providing powerful incentives for industry to find replacements, substitutes, or alternatives. The toxicity testing required by many of these statutes generated new knowledge and a new awareness about the type and degree of hazard associated with numerous chemicals. As the collective knowledge grew in scientific and industrial circles, there was a corresponding growth in the public’s demand for more information about chemicals that are present in their communities.

In 1980, this culminated in the United States with the passage of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), which made public relevant data on chemicals being released to the air, water, and land by industry. As a consequence, industry has been confronted by tremendous pressure, not only to reduce the release of toxic chemicals to the environment, but also to reduce the use of hazardous chemicals overall.  Thus, it is not surprising that since 1990 in the United States, Sustainable Chemistry has been an official focus area by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) involving a great activity in research, symposia, and education.  

In 1993, P. T. Anastas and C.A. Farris published the first book of the ACS Symposium series: Benign by Design, Alternative Synthetic Design for Pollution Prevention. This book provided an opportunity for several chemists, who were pioneers in the fields of benign by design chemistry, to present their research and it encouraged many scientists to become involved in environmentally responsible chemistry.

In the same year in Italy the Consorzio Interuniversitario “La Chimica per l’Ambiente” (INCA) was established, with the aim to prevent pollution through research for cleaner reactions, products and processes. INCA organized its first meeting in Venice “Processi Chimici Innovativi e Tutela dell’Ambiente” (Innovative Chemical Processes and Environmental Protection), in February 1993.

Despite this first key examples, it was only between 1996 and 1997 that the term Green Chemistry was firstly used.

The definition “Green Chemistry” or “Sustainable Chemistry” has been the subject of a long debate. Both expressions have been used for the same or very similar meanings, but each has its supporters and detractors. The word “green” is brightly evocative but may assume unintended connotations, whereas “sustainable” can be paraphrased as “chemistry for a sustainable environment”, and may be perceived as a less focused and less incisive description of the discipline. Other concerns were also that in many countries the word “green” is associated with political parties primarily focused on environmental issues. In the United States, green symbolizes the colour of money. Therefore, in areas that use the U.S. Dollar as currency, green carries a connotation of money, wealth, and capitalism. The flag of Libya is entirely green (the traditional colour of Islam), the only current national flag of a single colour. Green is considered the traditional colour of Islam, likewise because of its association with nature. Green is a symbol of Ireland, which is often referred to as "the Emerald Isle" (Green represents also St. Patrick's Day). The colour is particularly identified with the republican and nationalist traditions in modern times in balance with the Protestant orange. Green is thought to be an unlucky colour in British and British-derived cultures, where green cars, wedding dresses, and theatre costumes are all the objects of superstition. In Dante's Divine Comedy, green is the colour used to symbolize hope. In the Roman Catholic church, green is a traditional colour symbolizing hope and the tree of life. The colour green is often used as a symbol of sickness. In Japan, green indicates safety and luxury.

Despite this debate, IUPAC embraced the definition of Green Chemistry as “the invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances”.

This definition is not only straightforward, but it also marks a significant departure from the manner in which environmental issues have been considered or ignored in the up-front design of the molecules and molecular transformations that are at the heart of the chemical enterprise. Paul Anastas and John C. Warner developed 12 principles of Green Chemistry, which illustrate the definition in a practical sense. These principles cover several fundamental aspects such as:

  - Invention and design imply of chemical products which inextricably links hazard considerations to performance criteria
  - Use and generation signify that Green Chemistry must focus not only on those undesirable substances that might be inadvertently produced in a process, but also on all substances that are part of the process. In this sense Green Chemistry recognizes that there are significant consequences associated with the use of hazardous substances, ranging from regulatory, handling and transport, and liability issues, to name a few.
  - Hazardous means that Green Chemistry is a way of dealing with risk reduction and pollution prevention by addressing the intrinsic hazards of the substances rather than those circumstances and conditions of their use that might increase their risk. 

In August 1996 IUPAC began its involvement in the Green Chemistry area by foundation of the Working Party on Synthetic Pathways and Processes in Green Chemistry under Commission III (Seoul, Korea 1996). A year later in September 1997 the First International Conference on “Challenging Perspectives on Green Chemistry” was held in Venice. Since then IUPAC has been actively involved in several projects related to Green Chemistry. In July 2001, IUPAC approved the establishment of the Interdivisional sub-Committee on Green Chemistry (Division III). The committee's primary focus is to establish and carry out educational Green Chemistry programs. Since its conception the subcommittee has actively organized international workshops, symposia and conferences in addition to the preparation and dissemination of numerous books (Green Chemistry Series) on global topics related to green/sustainable chemistry specifically aimed at university students. Current projects and activities include: "Global Climate Change" - Translation and dissemination of a monograph for secondary schools, a IUPAC-INCA joint project on the creation of a web page on Green/Sustainable Chemistry, Green Chemistry in the Arab region.

Another important step in the development of Green Chemistry was the foundation in 1997 of the Green Chemistry Institute in USA. After more than a year of planning by individuals from industry, government and academia, the Green Chemistry Institute (GCI) was incorporated in 1997 as a not -profit corporation devoted to promoting and advancing Green Chemistry. In January 2001, GCI joined the American Chemical Society (ACS) in an increased effort to address global issues at the intersection of chemistry and the environment. From its earliest days, the Institute has sought to be the premier change agent that has the knowledge, expertise, and capabilities to catalyze the movement of the chemical enterprise toward sustainability through the application of Green Chemistry principles. To fulfil its mission, ACS GCI supports research, works to integrate Green Chemistry into all levels of chemical education, aides companies with industrial implementation, hosts conferences, and coordinates efforts with an international network of Green Chemistry advocates. The GCI also provides national recognition for outstanding student contributions to furthering the goals of Green Chemistry. The most famous awards are the ones established in memory of  Kenneth G. Hancock (The Hancock Memorial Award in Green Chemistry) and Joseph Breen  (Joseph Breen Memorial Fellowships).

In the late nineties and especially with the beginning of the new millennium the interest for Green Chemistry spread all over the world. In 1998 upon EPA proposal, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) instituted a Directive Committee for the development of sustainable chemistry and finalised the Programme called “Sustainable Chemistry” that included the chemistry aimed to pollution prevention and better industrial performance. The USA and Japan were nominated co-leaders in the field of research and development while Italy was appointed leader of the Educational Act. INCA was chosen as the coordinator of the Educational Acts on Green Chemistry for OECD.

OECD also indicated seven research areas of Sustainable and Green Chemistry:

  1. Use of Alternative Feedstock: The use of feedstock which are both renewable rather than depleting and less toxic to human health and the environment.
  2. Use of Innocuous Reagents: The use of reagents that are inherently less hazardous and are catalytic whenever feasible.
  3. Employing Natural Processes: Use of biosynthesis, biocatalysis, and biotech-based chemical transformations for efficiency and selectivity.
  4. Use of Alternative Solvents: the design and utilization of solvents which have reduced potential for detriment to the environment and serve as alternatives to currently used volatile organic solvents, chlorinated solvents, and solvents which damage the natural environment.
  5. Design of Safer Chemical: Use of molecular structure design – and consideration of the principles of toxicity and mechanism of action – to minimize the intrinsic toxicity of the product while maintaining its efficacy of function.
  6. Developing Alternative Reaction Conditions: The design of reaction conditions that increase the selectivity of the product and allow for dematerialization of the product separation process.
  7. Minimizing Energy Consumption: The design of chemical transformations that reduce the required energy input in terms of both mechanical and thermal inputs and the associated environmental impacts of excessive energy usage.

A year later, in 1999 the Royal Society of Chemistry introduced in its catalogue a new journal entirely dedicated to sustainable chemistry: Green Chemistry. This journal, as it is stated in the webpage of RSC, “provides a unique forum for the publication of original and significant cutting-edge research that reduces the environmental impact of the chemical enterprise by developing alternative sustainable technologies”. Following this examples, several other journal were published on the subject, i.e., ChemSusChem (since 2008) and very recently ACS sustainable ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering (since 2013)

Also in this period it must be mentioned: the foundation of the Green Chemistry Institute of Spain (February 2000), the Green & Sustainable Chemistry Network (GSCN), created in Japan in 1988 that in 2007 held in collaboration with the Asian-Oceanian Network (AON), the First Asian-Oceanian Conference on Green & Sustainable Chemistry, the foundation of the Centre of Green Chemistry of Monash University also in Australia. These are just few examples for the promotion of research and development in the sector of environmental protection. Also the German government has begun to dedicated special attention to renewable chemistry. In 2002, in connection with the Johannesburg’s “World Summit for Sustainable Development”, the government launched an international conference aimed at supporting the ongoing promotion of the use of renewable energy in industrial and global development processes. The conference, which was held in Bonn, gathered 3600 participants.

In order to address the increasing need of Green Chemistry education, the Carnegie Group (the meeting of the G8 Ministers for Research is held twice a year) held in Victoria, Canada (June 2-3, 2005) and in New York (December 2-3, 2005) , founded a research and training network on Green-Sustainable Chemistry: The International Green Network (IGN). The network was unanimously approved, following a proposal by the Italian Minister for Education, Research and University. INCA was selected as its hub, and will - along with the other research centres - dedicate a space within its institute to the IGN. The IGN aims to provide know-how, coordination and sponsorship for scientific collaborations, proper training for the new generation of chemists, and support for sustainable use of chemistry in developing nations. As first action, INCA organized the kick-off meeting of The International Green Network (1st December 2005, Marghera, Venice). Delegates of all the G8 countries participated in the event, as well as observers from other nations and prominent invited speakers. The document, which was presented on that occasion and immediately after approved by the Carnegie Group in New York, outlines the goals and mission of IGN.

In December 2005, in consideration of the increasing collaboration between the European regions of the Mediterranean and North-Africa, a new network was founded: the Mediterranean Countries Network on Green Chemistry (MEGREC). Through collaboration in research and education and mutual financial support, the partners aim to strengthen the links among the Mediterranean countries, particularly fostering the collaboration between the European and the Arab countries facing the Mediterranean Sea. Some of the objectives of the MEGREC program are the creation of a university Master Course (second level) on Green Chemistry and the recruitment of young researchers who will carry on scientific activities in the laboratories of the partner institutions. The second Board meeting of the Network was held in Fez (Morocco) on April 28, 2006. During this meeting, Tunisia and Algeria were officially admitted to MEGREC. The fourth Board meeting of the series has recently taken place in Athens on 3-4 May 2007. MEGREC is now coordinated by Prof. Tundo and has its site in Venice at Centre of Green Chemistry the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice (Italy), .

Another important step in the history of Green Chemistry has been realized by the introduction of REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals Regulation) which was formally adopted on 18 December 2006 by the European Council of Environment Ministers. This new regulation aims to improve the protection of human health and the environment through improved assessment of chemical substances. Thus, the REACH Regulation gives greater responsibility to industry as manufacturers and importers will be required to compile information on the properties of their substances and to register the information in a central database. This Regulation ultimately calls for a progressive substitution of the most dangerous chemicals when suitable and greener alternatives have been identified which is the main goal of Green Chemistry itself.

Also in Latin countries the scientific community is focusing intensively on Green Chemistry by developing a scientific collaboration programme titled “Chemistry for Clear Reactions and Processes: Green Chemistry.” This joint project has given opportunities to researchers from Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Costa Rica and Venezuela to operate in an Italian university.

In 2006 following the launch of the IUPAC Green Chemistry Subcommittee (III Division), INCA in collaboration with the German Chemical Society (GDCh) organized the first International IUPAC Conference dedicated to Green-Sustainable Chemistry (ICGC-1). The meeting (10-15 September 2006) was organized under the auspices of IUPAC, Italian Ministry of Research, Federal Ministry of Environment of Germany, Nature Conservation and Nuclear safety and the German Federal Environmental Ministry. The wide selection of topics chosen for this conference attracted industrial researchers and representatives, colleagues from University as well as politicians and students. The enormous effort of the organization committee was fully paid off by the registered presence of over 450 participants coming from 42 countries. Following this meeting, the ICGC Conference has become a biannual appointment that has attracted numerous scientists.  The 5th International IUPAC Conference on Green Chemistry will be held in Durban (South Africa) on 17-21 August 2014.

Furthermore IUPAC has recently published a call for PhosAgro/UNESCO/IUPAC research grants in green chemistry. The idea is that the research in green chemistry and related areas, i.e., biochemistry, geochemistry, biotechnology, ecology and healthcare would give young scientists the opportunity to demonstrate their inventiveness and provide important input to sustainable development. With this in mind, the Green Chemistry for Life Project was launched in 2013 by UNESCO’s International Basic Sciences Programme (IBSP) and PhosAgro, the largest producer of phosphate-based fertilizer in Europe, in close cooperation with IUPAC. Over the course of 5 years, the project will offer research grants of up to 30.000 US dollars each to scientists aged 35 years or less with an innovative research project that respects the 12 principles of green chemistry, to help them implement their project.

In 2008 also the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS) has established a Working Party on Green and Sustainable Chemistry.

The Working Party on “Green and Sustainable Chemistry” is a network of members of EuCheMS societies working in all fields of chemistry related to “The invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances”. The Working Party aims at becoming the key forum for discussion and promotion of any initiatives at the scientific, technical and political level to advocate the leading role of chemistry in contemporary green research. As a result in 2013 the WP has organized the 1st EuCheMS congress on Green and Sustainable chemistry in Budapest.

The history of Green Chemistry although quite short is definitely full of events attesting the ever growing interest in this field that has yet a long road ahead.
 

Green Chemistry in Latin America

Some reflections about Green Chemistry in Latin America

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 flag_sa-br_brazil.gif Vânia G. Zuin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil)

Federal University of São Carlo Personal page.
Webpages related to GC: www.ufscar.br/gpqv/english/ and www.ufscar.br/icgc4/

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The Green Chemistry philosophy has been introduced in Latin America (LA) circa 10-15 years ago, especially in the academia. As can be noted by the contributions from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Mexico, several individual actions conducted by these researchers in collaboration with European and American colleagues have been promoting the construction of a solid base to the subsequent initiatives considering green approaches.

A number of collective research and outreach projects supported by national and international agencies (as is the case of IUPAC) have been given the conditions to insert Green Chemistry in all levels of education as well as to dialog with the governmental, non-governmental organizations and industry sectors. As a result, didactic and divulgation materials, innovative research lines, journals, educational directives, conferences, new sections in some Chemical Societies from LA have been created, allowing a deeper and strengthened permanence of Green Chemistry in all areas and fields related to Chemistry in Latin American countries. The perspective is even more Green.


Read the LA articles collected by Vania G. Zuin: 

LA1. Argentina: Green Chemistry in Argentina past and future

LA2. Brazil: 1. The latest green chemistry initiatives in Brazil promoted by the Brazilian Chemical Society; 2. The Brazilian Green Chemistry School

LA3. Mexico: 

LA4. Peru: Sowing the seeds of green chemistry in Peru

LA5. Uruguay: 1. Biocatalysis and Biotransformations Group; 2. Bioanalytical Chemistry-Bio MS Group; 3. Oils and Fats Group; 4. Clean Hydrogen production group; 5. Heterogeneous catalysis group; 6. Chemical Ecology Group


LA1. Green Chemistry in Argentina

Green Chemistry in Argentina past and future

flag_sa-ar_argentina.gif Gustavo P. Romanelli and Patricia Vazquez (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas “Dr. Jorge J. Ronco” (CINDECA-CCT-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Calle 47 Nº 257, B1900AJK La Plata, Argentina.)

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Green Chemistry in Argentina was originated by a great number of isolated actions, the first of which took place in Venice (Italy), when a group of Argentinean scientists was invited by Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale la Chimica per l´Ambiente (INCA) to attend the first Green Chemistry Workshop between both countries.

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That group, integrated by Drs. Nora Nudelman, Roberto Fernandez Prini, Miguel Laborde, Juana Chessa de Silver y Patricia Vazquez (currently member of Green Chemistry IUPAC), was the responsible for the built of a solid foundation for such meetings. In consequence, in 2003 the 2nd Italian-Argentine Workshop on Sustainable Chemistry was realized in Córdoba (Argentine), thanks to the support of INCA, and Río Cuarto National University and the Italian Consulate (in Córdoba). The developed activities included plenary conferences of Italian and Argentinean scientists, short presentations and discussions about the role of Green Chemistry in the solving of global problems.

From that initiative, several research groups and members of CONICET and National Universities started to include in their lines of research the development related to the accomplishment of the Green Chemistry principles.  Among this pioneers it is worth mentioning: Buenos Aires University  (Dr. N. Nudelman); Drs. Luis Pizzio, Mirta Blanco, Carmen Caceres, Gustavo Romanelli and Patricia Vazquez of Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo “Dr. Jorge Ronco” (CINDECA), of La Plata University, Rosario University  (Drs. R. Spanevello y A. Suarez), Córdoba University  (Drs. R. Hoyos de Rossi y L. Rossi), Rio Cuarto University (Dr. J. Silver), Tucumán University (C. Catalán), Quilmes University (J. Trelles) and Sur University (Dr. E. Brignole).

The areas of interest are focused on the appreciation of residues extracted from the biomass, redesigning of organic synthesis and fine chemistry procedures into more environmentally friendly, the use of industrial waste, the generation of safer chemicals and the empowerment of heterogeneous catalysis in eco-compatible procedures of organic synthesis, as in polluting degradation through thermal and photo catalytic procedures.

To continue, some of the last decade more relevant topics, whose results were reflected in international publications, are mentioned: Tandem reactions with organometallic compounds: new environmentally friendly synthetic alternatives; Production of hydrogen and oxigenated from bioetanol; Environmentally benign solvent; Supercritical fluids, Ecofriendly acidic catalyst based bulk and supported heteropoly compounds; Green organic synthesis using recyclable catalyst (G. Romanelli), combinatorial synthesis of conducting polymers using azo dyes; Microwave-assisted one pot synthesis of polycyclic 4-quinolone derivatives, among others. Ing. Graciela Baronetti directed (on the part of Argentina) an agreement with the European Community, whose acronym was DIBANET. One of its researches was The Production of Sustainable Diesel Miscible Biofuels from the Residues and Wastes of Europe and Latin America. Currently, investigations are been made with PET originated fuel (Dr. Jorge Sambeth), execution of bricks from wood shavings (Dr. Nancy Quaranta, National Technological University. It is important to mention that Ag nanoparticles are being studied as antimicrobial from its contact with native plants, to its use in hygienic paints and products (fabrics) of medicinal use on vulnerable population (Dr. Patricia Vázquez).

Since 2002 work of releasing has been done in Argentina. The group Verde Conciencia has been expanding Green Chemistry for ten years now in places such as the International Fair of the Book, schools and research centers, and representing CONICET (National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigation), in different national and international events. Also, the Green Chemistry book has been printed in Spanish, emphasizing principle number 9, Catalysis, in order to be distributed free of charge in local schools.

In the last decade there have been some meetings to disseminate green chemistry, including: 1st and the 2nd Argentinien Workshop in Environmental Science (Rosario 2009 and 2012) and the realization of graduate courses including as Green Chemistry:  the greatest challenge for sustainable development (National University of La Plata dictated by Drs P. Vázquez and G. Romanelli, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011), and II Summer School the National University of La Plata, (Drs G. Romanelli and Dr. Vázquez, 2012); Iberoamerican Course on applied Biocatalysis in Green Chemistry (Universidad Nacional de National University of Quilmes , Dr. J. Trelles, 2008.2009 and 2011), and the IV Latin American Workshop on Green Chemistry (National University of Litoral, Dr. Nudelman, 2013), among others.

We expect for Green Chemistry to be, in the years to come, an expression germinated in Kindergartens and to be a synonymous of traditional chemistry. For that purpose we work in conjunction to different countries of the region.
 

LA2. Green Chemistry in Brazil

The latest green chemistry initiatives in Brazil promoted by the Brazilian Chemical Society

flag_sa-br_brazil.gif Claudia M. Rezende (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro)
flag_sa-br_brazil.gif Vitor F. Ferreira and Fernando C. Silva (Universidade Federal Fluminense)
flag_sa-br_brazil.gif Vânia G. Zuin (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)

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The International Year of Chemistry 2011 (IYC 2011) had an important impact in the sustainability dimension, since several actions regarding the environment - as was the majestic project of the planet pH (The Global Water Experiment) - were developed in Brazil. Another example, related to the Rio+20 (United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 20-22, 2012, was the contest “The Rio+20 legate: the future we want”, awarding laboratory experiences in all levels of education paying special attention to Green Chemistry.

These and other works in the same context are in press in a special edition of the Brazilian journal “Revista Virtual de Química (RVq, www.uff.br/rvq)”, a Brazilian Chemical Society (SBQ) publication that will show one of the latest contributions of Brazilian authors concerning sustainability. Among the papers, a number of themes can be found, e.g. The carbon dioxide as a feedstock for the chemical industry: production of Green methanol; Continuous flow reactions: from Green Chemistry towards a green process; Green Chemistry and the training of professionals in the field of Chemistry: report of a didactic experience outside the learning laboratory; and the awarded laboratory experiment in “The Rio+20 legate” contest: Development of an experiment on the greenhouse effect: a proposal for teaching.

The Rio de Janeiro government, its Science and Technology Secretary and the Rio de Janeiro-Carlos Chagas Filho Research Foundation (FAPERJ) were responsible for the launch of one of first call related to Green Chemistry to select scientific and technological research proposals in Rio de Janeiro. This call granted 30 research projects totalizing around US$ 500.000 for the development and innovation of environmentally friendly chemical products and processes through the acquisition and maintenance of equipment and infrastructure renovation.

More recently, Directory and Counsel of SBQ approved the creation of a new section titled “Green Chemistry”, which starts as an independent program section in the next annual meeting (37th RASBQ – http://www.sbq.org.br/37ra/). Now, the scientific community can present its works in this novel space, dedicated to the debate of Green Chemistry in the SBQ. This initiative had the promotion of a platform for researchers in this field as main objective, which could comprise the creation and application of green products and processes in analytical chemistry, catalysis, biocatalysis, renewable material, efficient reactions in several aspects etc. and all innovation that could mean the avoidance of generating toxic residues attending the sustainable principles. This new Green Chemistry section will collaborate to establish a dialog between the academia and all SBQ areas, but also an opportunity to integrate the other sectors of the government and industry in Brazil.
 

The Brazilian Green Chemistry School

flag_sa-br_brazil.gif by Peter Seidl (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro)

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A comprehensive strategy for Green Chemistry in Brazil was released three years ago as the result of a study conducted by the Center for Management and Strategic Studies (CGEE), in collaboration with representatives from industry, government and academia. It is based on the country’s favorable position in terms of the use of biomass as a source of energy and raw materials for industry and notes that Brazil still has sizable areas of land that could be used for agriculture, and access to relatively abundant sources of fresh water and receives a constant and intense amount of solar radiation in addition to considerable experience in the large scale production of fuels (in particular those related to ethanol from sugar cane) that was accumulated in a relatively short period of time. A strategy to fully explore these comparative advantages is described in the text on: “Química Verde no Brasil (Green Chemistry in Brazil) 2010 – 2030” and is based on a network of institutions that are involved in research, development and innovation in Green Chemistry.

The Escola Brasileira de Química Verde (Brazilian Green Chemistry School) plays an important role in this strategy, preparing teams of qualified researchers to conduct the activities of the network and creating a knowledge base for innovation in chemical and biochemical processes. It is also responsible for outreach projects that inform the general public about Green Chemistry and its benefits to society. The initial activities of the Green Chemistry School are based at the School of Chemistry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), which offers undergraduate courses in chemical engineering, industrial chemistry, food engineering and bioprocess engineering and a graduate program in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes. It is located on the university campus, close to important research centers, a technology park and an incubator for tech-based companies. The Green Chemistry School has a staff made up of professors from UFRJ and other universities, as well as researchers from technology centers and companies. It organizes courses, workshops and meetings on Green Chemistry and related topics. Present activities include: setting up a Professional Master of Sciences degree in Green Chemistry; development of educational material, experiments and demonstrations for students at a high school level (that can also be used for outreach activities) and a survey of opportunities for biobased chemicals in Brazil.  


LA3. Green Chemistry in Mexico 

flag_na-mx_mexico.gif Ma. del Carmen Doria Serrano (Iberoamericana University)

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The adoption of Microscale Chemistry for the teaching of Chemistry in Mexico can be traced back to 1990 thanks to the influence of the US National Microscale Chemistry Center (NMCC, at Merrimack College, Massachusetts) at Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City. After several years organizing workshops for university teachers in our country, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center was established.

Since 2005, the Center included Green Chemistry and was constituted in 2005 as the Mexican Chapter of the Green Chemistry Institute (GCI) of the American Chemical Society (ACS) with the main objective of diffusing Green Chemistry among High School and University Spanish-speaking professors.

Our most ambitious projects had been the co-organization of the NSF-PASI (Pan American Advanced Studies Institute) in 2007. In 2008 we organized a Latin American Green Chemistry workshop under the auspices of the project: ChemRAWN XIV-ACS Green Chemistry Institute-International Green Chemistry Grants Program, named  “Green Chemistry for teachers from Spanish-speaking countries” to which 30 people from Panama, Colombia, Argentina, Peru, Cuba and Mexico attended.  Dr. Ken Doxsee from the University of Oregon and Dr. Jennifer Young from GCI were the invited instructors.

This workshop gave us the opportunity to meet Dr. Abdiel Aponte from the University of Panama. We have collaborated with him and his colleges to implement microscale green chemistry in high schools and in the University of Panama, which is the largest in that country. We have participated in National and International Congresses, the last one being the 4th International IUPAC Conference on Green Chemistry held in Brazil in 2012.

In 2010 the ACS granted the Center for Green and Microscale Chemistry an ACS-CEI Award for Incorporating Sustainability into Chemistry Education. Our usual work includes the organization of workshops in our university, as well as in different state universities in Mexico, interested in implementing green chemistry in their Organic Chemistry Lab courses. Nowadays we are writing a book that will apply an inquiry approach for the teaching practice of the teachers we train.  We are also planning to begin a research project. For that purpose, we established communication with Dr. Antonio de la Hoz from Castilla-La Mancha University in Spain to work in microwave organic synthesis in order to benefit from their experience in the area.

Another important active group in Green Chemistry in Mexico is the one guided by Dr. René Miranda from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). They have research projects using infrared radiation for solventless organic synthesis in their graduate program in Organic Chemistry. They have published several books on the subject and have collaborated with the Technological Institute of Costa Rica for the training of their Organic Chemistry teachers.
 

LA4. Green Chemistry in Peru

Sowing the seeds of green chemistry in Peru

flag_sa-pe_peru.gif Patricia Morales Bueno (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru)

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Although the philosophy of Green Chemistry has been disseminated and adopted in a variety of educational applications at various educational levels, there are still countries like Peru where this subject has not started to be implemented neither in education nor in research. In the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), the issue of Green Chemistry was first incorporated in 2009, in a program for children from 5th and 6th grade called "A Scientific and Ecological Morning" and another for high school students called "One Morning in Science". These programs are organized annually by the Office of Relations with Educational Centers, in coordination with the specialties of Chemistry, Physics and Engineering. Activities in the chemistry laboratory were designed to introduce the concept of green chemistry and the conscious application of some of its principles, especially the first three. The impact of these programs was important and the teachers of the participating schools were motivated to request PUCP to organize a workshop to become familiar with the subject and to continue working with their students at school.

The PUCP Centre for Research and Educational Services (CISE) took over the organization of the course entitled " Designing strategies for introducing the concept of Green Chemistry in learning chemistry in basic education", in coordination with the specialist from the chemistry section. 

The course objectives were:

  1. To reflect on the need to incorporate elements that promote awareness among students about the responsible and benign application of science.
  2. To learn the basic principles of green chemistry.
  3. To research and select relevant examples that may relate to the implementation of green chemistry in students activities.
  4. To design or adapt experiences in which any of the principles of green chemistry is applied.
  5. To design a strategy for the learning of a topic of chemistry, incorporating an example of application of green chemistry as a motivator element and including experiences or activities that relate to any of the principles of this philosophy.

The contents worked during the 20 hours of the workshop were:

  1. Science and Technology,  guilty or innocent?: Environmental problems and their relationship to the development of Science and Technology.
  2. Basic Principles of Green Chemistry. The philosophy of green chemistry: the twelve principles, some application examples.
  3. Application of the principles of green chemistry in the study of everyday products.
    Experiences in micro scale: study of acidity in food and cleaning products using natural indicators, recognition of starch in food, separation of food dyes.
  4. Plastics: the first beneficiaries of green technology.
    Experiences in micro scale: Recycling, Properties of Plastics.
  5. The principle of atom economy: The chemical reactions, stoichiometry, and the calculation of atom economy.
  6. How to incorporate the principles of green chemistry in the design of the learning strategy?

The methodology used in the training workshop was active and participatory, implementing dynamics of group work for both spaces for reflection and analysis, and for the realization of practical experience. There were also spaces of dialogue facilitated by the specialist, which allowed collecting views, opinions and questions that generated debates on the issues to reach conclusions. Participants also had personal work spaces, which allowed them to develop a strategy for learning a topic of chemistry, incorporating the principles of green chemistry. From the beginning, participating teachers showed much interest in the course and the topics covered in it. Most teachers said they were involved in activities related to environmental protection in their respective schools, such as plastic bottles and used batteries collection, so the issue of Green Chemistry awakened a buzz and motivation in them, which was evident in the high level of participation showed in the different workshop activities.

The objectives for the course were met satisfactorily. The reflection started from day one, propitiating through selected readings that teachers take a stand against the dilemma of blaming science and technology of the various environmental problems facing the world today or not. The ideas and arguments raised in the dynamics of the controversial debate were very enriching and interesting and were taken as a relevant precedent for introducing the topic of green chemistry. The various activities planned for each day, were intended to encourage teachers to take some ideas and, from them, to develop new ones that allow to forward the final product of the workshop, showing a very good reception from teachers, who found much interest in micro scale particular experiences made ​​with common material.

To develop the final product, groups were formed and each of them worked a common axis, with different implementation alternatives for each one of the participating schools. That way the teams were organized more efficiently, as demonstrated by the quality of the designs produced. In short, the strategy used was very successful in this experience so that it becomes feasible to adapt the design to implement similar activities with academics from higher education.
 

LA5. Green Chemistry in Uruguay

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif David Gonzalez and Alejandra Rodriguez (Universidad de la República)

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Since 2003, Green Chemistry has had constant development in Uruguay, particularly in academia. There are several research groups in the field and advances are seen in all aspects of Green Chemistry. The current challenge for our researchers is the technology transfer of green technology to the industry sector.  Below follows just a brief sample of the main activities and research groups active in Green chemistry in our country.
 

Biocatalysis and Biotransformations Group

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif Dra. Sonia Rodriguez, Dr. David Gonzalez, Dra. Pilar Menendez, Dr. Ignacio Carrera, Dra. Paula Rodriguez, Dra. Paola Panizza (Laboratorio de Biocatálisis y Biotransformaciones, Facultad de Química, Montevideo, Uruguay).
 

Our group makes use of biocatalysis as an efficient instrument within the green chemistry toolbox. In that fashion, we investigate quimioenzymatic strategies for the synthesis of optically pure molecules of pharmacology and agricultural value. We have prepared, natural products, drug precursors, pesticide metabolites and developed strategies for green pulping and valorization of cellulose industry residues. In addition, our interdisciplinary group has isolated several strains with novel biocatalytic potential and optimized fermentation processes at the lab scale.  We work in both basic and applied projects and we closely collaborate with industry in the search of safer and greener alternatives for the chemical and energy sector. We are also active in teaching and outreach and have implemented courses at the university and high school level in collaboration with other researchers of our institution.  Internationally we have tried to interact with other green chemists particularly in the Latin American region.
 

Bioanalytical Chemistry-Bio MS Group

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif Dra. Alejandra Rodriguez-Haralambides, M.Sc. Tania Possi-Pezzali, Lic. Rafael González (Instituto Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Uruguay).
 

Our research is focused on bioanalytical methods, using mass spectrometry as a main tool to enable the answer to new questions about biological systems and their interactions. Green chemistry practices as a whole are a major contribution of chemists to sustainable development. Green analytical chemistry plays an important role in this venture and our research focuses on the reduction of the analytical methods impact in the environment. To achieve this and thus add to the green chemistry concept, our efforts involve the development of techniques that reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous substances, with greener sample clean up treatments (less amount of solvents, use of miniaturized analytical devices); using benign solvents and reagents, and increasing the efficiency of the chromatographic separation (use of shorter columns, reduced particle size and internal diameter). Due to the high sensitivity and selectivity of mass spectrometry techniques such LC-MS/MS, the sample preparation can be simplified and miniaturized. Overall, the aim is the development of faster and energy efficient analysis without compromising the performance. From a green analytical chemistry point of view, direct analytical techniques are desirable and lead us to remember the classic statement: “The best sample preparation is no sample preparation”.

Oils and Fats Group

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif Dr. Ivan Jachmanian (Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Uruguay).

Two main areas involved in our work are directly related to Green Chemistry:

1. Enzymatic catalysis for the design of special fats and oils and their derivatives.

Lipases are efficient catalysts for the design of edible fats with particular physicochemical properties. These are clean methods that avoid the use of conventional catalysts and organic solvents.  In addition, enzymatic catalysis can be used for the efficient production of alkylic esters of fatty acids (biodiesel), avoiding the major environmental impact associated with biodiesel production (wastewaters and low quality glycerin byproduct)

 2. Supercritical fluids in extraction process and reaction media

Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) is an attractive alternative to organic solvent extraction due to its low toxicity and flammability. Its low supercritical temperature (31 ºC) allows conducting processes at moderate temperature compatible with sensitive products of high added value.  In addition, we have explored the chemistry of reactions performed in SCCO2, particularly transesterification reactions. Notably, oils can be converted into ethyl esters in SCCO2 in the presence ofwater. This allows the use of regular distilled ethanol as the ethyl source, in contrast with standard esterification techniques that require strictly anhydrous ethanol as reagent.

Clean Hydrogen production group

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif Dr. Claudia Etchebere (Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay).
 

Our work focuses on the clean production of Hydrogen from waste. The main Green Chemistry goal is the search for environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional chemical processes. In this sense, our research focuses on the biological treatment of waste and the concomitant production of clean energy in a green fashion.

Heterogeneous catalysis group

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif Dr. Juan Bussi (Physicochemistry Laboratory, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay).

Techniques based on heterogeneous catalysis may contribute in the search of processes that preclude waste product generation and minimize the use of environmentally unfriendly reagents such as reducing and oxidant agents, strong acids and bases, etc. In addition, heterogeneous catalysis can provide alternatives for the elimination or destruction of waste generated in other non-green methods.

Chemical Ecology Group

flag_sa-uy_uruguay.gif Dr. Carmen Rossini and Dr. Andres Gonzalez (Chemical Ecology Laboratory, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay).

Our group studies the chemical and biological perspectives of the mechanisms of chemical communication and defenses in plants and insects. Our goal is to apply this knowledge to develop strategies based on natural products and semiochemicals for pest control in the agricultural and forestry industries. In this fashion, we aim to reduce the environmental impact of traditional pesticides use by developing strategies based on chemical signaling by sex pheromones and the use of pesticides of botanic origin and substances synthesized by plants that can modulate insect behavior.
 

Green Chemistry in the Russian Federation

Green chemistry in Russia: some examples of the activity of the Scientific-Educational Center “Sustainable-Green Chemistry” of Lomonosov Moscow State University

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flag_as-ru_russianfed.gif Ekaterina Lokteva, Doctor of Science, PhD, Leading Scientist of the Chemistry Department and Vice-Director of the Scientific-Educational Center “Sustainable-Green Chemistry” of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Lomonosov University Personal Page.

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The concept of sustainable development and green chemistry as a part of this concept are not very familiar to Russians. Only a few years ago authorities of various levels began to manifest interest in this field, due to huge efforts made primarily by the members of scientific community. Between them the crucial role for enlightening of Russian population and authorities is played by Natalia Tarasova of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia and Valery Lunin, Dean of Chemistry Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University. To widen, improve and organize this work in 2006 the Scientific-Educational Center “Sustainable- Green Chemistry” (SEC GC) was created in Lomonosov Moscow State University, the biggest and the most famous University of Russia.

In the process of SEC GC formal establishment the primary task was to perform inventory of the efforts made by Russian scientific and educational community towards green chemistry. For this reason the collection of articles named “Green chemistry in Russia” was gathered and published in 2004-2005 under the aegis and with financial help of IUPAC and Italian Consortium INCA (Prof. Pietro Tundo). The book includes contributions from famous Russian scientists, pioneers of green chemistry investigations, such as Valery Charushin and Oleg Chupakhin, Valery Lunin, Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Sergey Yufit and many others. 

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IUPAC President Prof. K.Tatsumi in Moscow Exhibition Centre EXPOCENTRE presenting the Diploma to the winner of All-Russian Competition in the field of Green Chemistry (2012). Also elected IUPAC Vice-President Natalia Tarasova and the head of Scientific-Educational Centre Prof. Valery Lunin on the photo.

The articles encompass all fields of green chemistry, from biomass use for sustainable chemical materials production, catalysis, chlorine-free chemistry, to green organic synthesis. Two editions, one in Russian and another in English, were disseminated for free between libraries of universities, institutions in Russia and other countries, first of all, former Soviet republics. By the way close collaboration with colleagues and organizations in these countries is the characteristic feature of the SEC GC. It is organized not only through branches of Lomonosov Moscow State University, situated in Baku (Azerbaijan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), and Dushanbe (Tajikistan), but also through ecological organizations in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) and Donetsk (Ukraine).

Great efforts were devoted to estimation and inventory of educational programs in the field of green chemistry in Lomonosov Moscow State University and other universities and educational organizations in Russia. This hard task was simplified by the fact that universities in Russia providing chemistry education were united into the Educational-Methodical Union. Then special innovative programs were developed for master and bachelor education under the common name “Chemistry for sustainable development”. Later special courses for master students were created and included into educational plan, one of the courses being devoted to catalysis, and also the course “Methods of green processes realization”. This course is presented by E.Lokteva to master students both in Lomonosov Moscow State University and in Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Moscow).

Another important task for the SEC GC was the inclusion of elements of green chemistry into basic chemistry courses for the students of Chemistry Department and associated departments, such as Biology, Soil Science, Medicine, Bioengeneering, Fundamental Physical and Chemical Engineering, Physics and Geology Departments. During basic courses of General chemistry, as well as courses of Organic and Physical chemistry the lecturers pay special attention to the topics of green chemistry, such as the 12 principles, biomass as the future resource of energy and chemicals, widening of the use of catalysis, possibility of the use of “green” solvents etc. The team of the SEC GC performed Russian translation of the INTERNET- resource Novel Organic Practicum (NOP), developed in Germany (Regensburg University, Germany) by Burkhard König at al. that includes, as an important part, the estimation of the environmental impact of different assignments.

To involve and enlighten school teachers, the members of SEC GC present lectures and master-classes in Moscow Institute of Open Education on regular basis. In this Institute training courses are read to Moscow school teachers. Green chemistry program is oriented towards teachers of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences, Biology, Geography and other subjects. Usually the topic of green chemistry causes a live interest in teachers’ auditorium. They often contact presenting lecturer with requests to establish tasks for scientific works of school students in the field of environmental science and green chemistry.

Starting from the first Festival of Science, organized in 2005 in Lomonosov Moscow State University, that was significantly widened later and is now known as Moscow Festival of Science, the specialists of the SEC GC provide for the participants lectures and master-classes in green chemistry, usually followed by excursions to the laboratories of the Center. These excursions with demonstrations of what electron microscopy, infrared or electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy and other modern techniques can do for the investigation of catalysts, new materials and in other fields, are very attractive to high grade school students. Quite often the participants of such excursions “into science” become students of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and address the center staff for directing their graduation and PhD works.

Chemistry Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University closely cooperates with major chemicals producers in Russia and performs special educational programs for them, and the basic elements of green chemistry are included in such training courses. Moreover such huge business companies invite the specialists of the SEC GC to enlighten the people living proximate to chemical plants about the potential of green chemistry. For example, in April 2013 E.Lokteva provided such lectures in Kirov and Kirovo-Chepetsk (northern part of Russia) on a request from URALCHIM company - world known fertilizers producer.

Two years ago the SEC GC started collaboration with Moscow Exhibition Center EXPOCENTRE. The biannual exhibition “International Chemistry Assembly” in 2012 was generally devoted to the green chemistry subject. For the first time an exhibition, not a conference was awarded with IUPAC logo, and IUPAC President Prof. K.Tatsumi participated in the Opening Ceremony. Many events of the business program concern green chemistry topics, such as Supercritical Fluids Technology Conference; Conference on Chemical Security and Exhibition to commemorate Valery Legasov, the academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Innovative Educational and Public Awareness Programs in the Field of Green Chemistry: Making Green Chemistry Part of the General Courses of Lectures, Promoting Green Chemistry Through the Internet and Mass Media, a round-table discussion. Great attention was attracted towards the First All-Russia Competition of innovative works of young scientists in the field of Green chemistry. The winners were awarded with IUPAC prizes as well as the prizes of Organizing Committee and EXPOCENTER.

Green Chemistry also became an important issue of another biannual exhibition Chemstry-2014, which also involved business-program of sustainable direction: All-Russian symposium on Green Chemistry; International Chemical Forum “Health, Safety, Environment”; Seminar “Supercritical Fluids Technologies – the Technologies of Green Chemistry”, and Second All-Russia Competition of innovative works of young scientists in the field of Green chemistry. The winners this year included young scientists from Moscow and other regions of Russia. The prizes were given to Bykhovtseva Julia from Syktyvkar for the work “The production of the materials for medicine purposes from biodisposable and renewable raw materials”; Fazlyev Azat from Kazan, “Regeneration of ionic liquids from water solutions by pervaporation membranes HybSi”; Suslova Eugenia from Moscow, “New composite catalyst based on MNT for CO reductive conversion”; Kudryavtseva Eugenia from Moscow, “Educational-communicatory program to support the development of “Responcible Care” program on Russian Chemical Industries”; Martynenko Eugenia from Omsk, “New way for chlorinated polymers disposal – synthesis of phenol sorbents” and Autlov Stanislaw from Barnaul, “The production of microcrystalline cellulose using microwave radiation”. All winners

received the Diplomas from Competition Jury, as well as from EXPOCENTER and UNIDO. The later were presented to winners personally by Petra Schwager, Cleaner Production Coordinator, Environmental Management Branch of UNIDO, who attended the Exhibition and provided the lecture about UNIDO activity. All winners received possibility to demonstrate granted works as a short oral reports on the Symposium.

The SEC SC performs scientific work in the field of green chemistry to provide a chance for young people – students and post-graduates – to participate and master the practice in this field, especially in catalysis. It has to be stressed that during last 5 years Russian Ministry of Education and Science has been providing grants to maintain the work of Scientific-Educational Centers in Russia. Twice our SEC Green Chemistry won such prestigious competitions, collecting hundreds of participants. In 2009-2011 SEC GC successfully performed the work named “Development of the New Methods of Effective and Environmentally Safe Disposal of Toxic Man-Made Wastes and the Catalysts for these Methods”. In 2012-2013 the Ministry of Education and Science supported another work of the SEC GC, devoted to the development of micro-mesoporous catalysts for the use in chemical and petrochemical processes, such as n- buthene isomerisation to isobuthene, production of isopropylbenzene from cumene, selective hydrogenation of acetylenes and reductive transformation of polychlorinated organics.

The organization of Green chemistry conferences, as well as seminars and round tables in the frames of wider conferences and congresses is an important activity of SEC GC. In 2008 the Second IUPAC conference on Green Chemistry attracted about 200 participants from 20 countries. During boat trip from Moscow to St.Petersburg, with short stops in Old Russian towns for excursions, the participants, including members of Green Chemistry sub-committee of IUPAC, were involved in interesting discussions concerning biomass transformation, catalysis, the use of supercritical solvents both as reaction media and reagents, education in green chemistry and many other topics.

Green chemistry was included as an important part into the program of the First Russian Congress on Catalysis (2011). Various branches of the green chemistry were creating a platform for such interesting events as Scientific-Practical Conferences “Supercritical Fluids – theory and Practice” (2011, Irkutsk; 2012, Ivanovo; 2013, Kaliningrad) /// conferences and round-tables. All events organized by Center attract famous green chemists from all over Russia. In addition to already mentioned V.Charushin and O.Chupakhin from Ekaterinburg, K.Bogolytsyn from Arkhangelsk, mention needs to be made of Valery Bukhtiyarov from Novosybirsk, Alexey Pestryakov from Tomsk, Vladimir Likholobov and Jury Krjagev from Omsk, Boris Kuznetsov from Krasnoyarsk, Rafinat Yarullin from Kazan.

The members of SEC GC collaborate with mass-media. Special episode of Russian TV-5 channel’s scientific-educational series “The history from the future” hosted by Director of Kurchatov Institute Mikhail Kovalchuk was organized as a discussion between the host, Valery Lunin and Ekaterina Lokteva (http://www.5-tv.ru/video/507075/). Great interest of audience in the field was observed directly after filming of the program, when sound and video engineers and assistants surrounded the guests to clarify important questions about safety of medicines to health, possibility of new materials production from biomass and other green chemistry subtopics. Russian newspapers such as “Poisk” newspaper, “Chemistry and Life” magazine and many others regularly publish the materials about green chemistry.

Website of the SEC GC has been working since 2006 (www.greenchemistry.ru) and has attracted hundreds of subscribers. Educational programs, reports about scientific activity of the center, the books, issued by SEC, information about future events in the field of green chemistry in Russia and worldwide, as well as reports on completed events are presented on the web-site. Last year a funny interactive test “Do you know about green chemistry” was created to attract young visitors. Web-site is presented in Russian, which is very important, because in contrast to the abundance of web-materials in foreign languages, the Russian web-content on the topic is too scanty. A plenty of subscribers of the web-site constitutes the group of new enlighteners in the field of green chemistry in the whole Russia.
 

Green Chemistry or Related Conferences

Joint conferences: Eastern and Southern Africa Environmental Chemistry Conference (ESAECC) and 10th Theoretical Chemistry Conference in Africa (TCCA)

University of Venda (South Africa) in April 6-11, 2014.

The TCCA were initiated to promote the development of theoretical/computational chemistry in Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is still largely a scarce skills area. This year proposed topics include the computer-aided design of environmentally benign substances.

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5th international IUPAC Conference on Green Chemistry - ICGC 2014

Durban (South Africa), 17–21 August 2014, www.saci.co.za/greenchem2014/